Despite significant investment in the Water Supply services since the early 1970s, water supply coverage is not satisfactory. The 1991 National Water Policy set a goal of providing clean and safe water to the population within 400 meters from their households by the year 2002. Today only about 50% of the rural population has access to a reliable water supply service. Due to poor operational and maintenance arrangements, over 30% of the rural water schemes are not functioning properly. The coverage for urban areas is 73%, but most urban water supplies are inadequately treated due to malfunctioning treatment plants. (NAWAPO 2002)
Under support of USAID – WARIDI program, Emac will work closely with communities, district authority to support the registration of new Community owned Water Supply COWSOs, design and implementation of appropriate capacity building measures for COWSOs in their role as providers of sustainable water supply and sanitation services, and as sole proprietors/owners of water schemes. The equitable representation of women and youth in water governance is E-MAC’s priority will be COWSOs water management structures and decision-making processes within the project area.
A considerable number of Tanzanians rely on natural resources to meet their daily needs such as wood for energy. Cutting down trees for wood causes deforestation and total environmental degradation. The problem of course does not stop there. Deforested areas become more of a threat than home for wildlife – leading to biodiversity loss and also susceptible to soil erosion. Modern beekeeping practice initiated by E-MAC and consortia organisations is an effective approach to maintain ecosystem while providing an alternative means of survival among the rural poor and reducing forest dependency for survival. This practice will be scaled up to other areas to mitigate environmental degradation, increase income and address poverty among marginalised communities.
In Tanzania, agricultural households have extended cultivation, intensified agriculture, and diversified livelihoods. There is common migration to gain access to land, markets and employment as a response to climatic change and other stressors. Some of these responses have depleted and degraded natural resources such as forest, soil and water. Such impacts coupled with climatic change will complicate livelihoods in the near future. This will be problematic to vulnerable groups such as women, children and pastoralists who have limited access to employment, markets and public services.
In this light, fair adaptation to climate change by agricultural households in Tanzania requires several complementary responses. E-MAC with other likeminded partners is working together with communities to address this alarming challenge among marginalised groups. This is being done through formation of self help groups and entrepreneurship training.
Women and young girls form over 51% of the total Tanzanian population. They make a large human resource. However, this productive group is stranded and vulnerable to health disorders, gender based violence and diseases.
Many young girls are subject to malpractice such as Female Genital Mutilation. In Tanzania, 7.9 million women and girls have undergone FGM (UNICEF, 2013). The magnitude and persistence of FGM continue to shock those who come across it. The practice has dreadful physiological and psychological effects to victims. It further violates their rights and entitlement to bodily integrity. The overall prevalence of FGM in girls between 15-49 years remained static at 14.6% between 2004 and 2010 (TDHS 2010). The change of law has brought fear of prosecution and drives the practice underground particularly in nomadic communities. Since FGM is considered a rite of passage from girlhood to womanhood, E-MAC is working with traditional leaders to provide an alternative rite of passage from childhood to adulthood without circumcising girls.
On the general sense Tanzania suffers high adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) which include high level of maternal mortality, gender based violence and low contraceptive uptake among women of reproductive age. Conscious of that, E-MAC Tanzania has begun intervening. In collaboration with Arusha District Council, E-MAC is implementing a health service delivery project. A mobile clinic has been deployed and offers health services in hard-to-reach areas of the district. E-MAC will continue to mobilise resources and support government initiatives to reduce these indicators at an acceptable level.